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Criando um novo tema

Aprenda como criar um novo tema no Hugo

Autor do tema

34 minutos de leitura

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Introdução

Neste tutorial irei mostrar como criar um simples tema para o Hugo. Assumo que você esteja familiarizado com HTML, linha de comando bash e sinta-se confortável usando Markdown para formatar o conteúdo. Eu vou explicar como o Hugo utiliza templates e como você pode organizar seus templates para criar um tema. Não irei abordar como utilizar CSS para estilizar o seu tema.

Iniciaremos com a criação de um novo site com um template básico. Então iremos adicionar algumas páginas e posts. Com pequenas variaçoes, você será capaz de criar vários tipos diferentes de sites.

Neste tutorial, os comandos que você utilizará irão começar com “$”. A saída aparecerá na linha seguinte. Linhas que iniciam com “#” são comentários que eu adicionei para explicar aquele ponto. Quando eu mostrar atualizações em um arquivo, o “:wq” na última linha indica para salvar o arquivo.

Aqui um exemplo:

## isto é um comentário
$ echo isto eh um comando
isto eh um comando

## editando o arquivo
$vi foo.md
+++
date = "2014-09-28"
title = "criando um novo tema"
+++

bah and humbug
:wq

## exibindo-o
$ cat foo.md
+++
date = "2014-09-28"
title = "criadno um novo tema"
+++

bah and humbug
$

Algumas definições

Existem alguns conceitos que você deve entender antes de criar um tema.

Skins

Skins são responsáveis pela aparência do seu site. É o CSS que controla cores e fontes, é o Javascript que determina as ações e reações. E também algumas regras que o Hugo utiliza para transformar o seu conteúdo no HTML que será exibido aos visitantes do site.

Você tem duas maneiras de criar uma skin. A mais simples é criar no diretório layouts/. Se for assim, você não precisa se preocupar em configurar o Hugo para reconhecê-las. O primeiro lugar que o Hugo irá procurar pelas regras e arquivos é no diretório layouts/ e então irá encontrar a skin.

Sua segunda opção é criar um sub-diretório dentro do themes/ diretório. Se for assim, então você deve informar ao Hugo onde encontrar a skin. É um trabalho extra, então, por que se preocupar com isso?

A diferença entre criar uma skin em layouts/ e criá-la dentro de themes/ é sutil. Uma skin em layouts/ não pode ser customizada sem atualização do template e arquivos estáticos dos quais foram construídos. A skin criada em themes/, por outro lado, pode ser e facilita para que outras pessoas a utilizem.

O restante deste tutorial irá chamar a skin criada no diretório themes/ de tema.

Note que você pode usar este tutorial para criar uma skin dentro do diretório layouts/ se quiser. A principal diferença será que você não precisará atualizar a configura’˜cao do seu site para usar o tema.

A Home Page

A home page, or landing page, é a primeira página que os visitantes do seu site veem. É o arquivo index.html no diretório raiz do seu site. Já que o Hugo gera os arquivo no diretório public/, nossa home para é public/index.html.

Arquivo de configuração do site

Quando o Hugo executa, ele procura pelo arquivo de configuração que contém as opções que fazem override dos valores default para todo o site. O arquivo utilizado pode ser TOML, YAML ou JSON. Eu prefiro TOML para os meus arquivos de configuração. Se você prefere JSON ou YAML, irá precisar traduzir os meus exemplos. Também irá precisar trocar o nome do arquivo, já que o Hugo utiliza a extensão para determinar como processá-lo.

Hugo traduz os arquivos Markdown para HTML. Por padrão, Hugo espera encontrar arquivos Markdown no diretório content/ e arquivos de template no seu diretório


### Conteúdo

Conteúdo é armazenado em arquivos de text que possuem duas seções. A primeira é a "front matter", que é a meta-informa'˜cao do conteúdo. A segunda contém o Markdown que será convertido para HTML.

#### Front Matter

A front matter é a informação sobre o conteúdo. Assim como o arquivo de configuração
, ela pode ser escrita em TOML, YAML ou JSON. Diferente do arquivo de configuração, Hugo não utiliza a extensão do arquivo para descobrir o formato. Ele procura por marcações para sinalizar o tipo. TOML é cercado por “`+++`”, YAML por “`---`” e JSON fechado por chaves "`{}`". Eu prefiro usar TOML, então você precisará traduzir os meus exemplos se preferir YAML ou JSON.

A informação na front matter é passada para o template antes do conteúdo ser renderizado em HTML.

#### Markdown

Conteúdo é escrito em Markdown o que torna fácil a criação. Hugo executa o conteúdo direto do Markdown para criar o HTML que será escrito no arquivo de saída.

### Arquivos de Template

Hugo utiza arquivos de template para renderizar o conteúdo no HTML. Arquivos de template são a ponte entre o conteúdo e a apresentação. Regras no template definem qual conteúdo será publicado, onde ele será publicado e como será renderizado para o arquivo HTML. O template orienta a apresentação especificando o estilo a ser utilizado.

Há três tipos de template: single, list e partial. Cada tipo pega um pouco do conteúdo como entrada e transforma-o baseado em comandos no template.

Hugo usa seu conhecimento sobre o conteúdo para encontrar o arquivo de template para renderizar o conteúdo. Se ele não encontrar o correspondente, ele troca para um nível acima e busca à partir de lá. Ele irá continuar até encontrar o template ou ficar sem templates para tentar. Caso ele não encontre, irá utilizar template default do site.

Observe que você pode usar a front matter para influenciar a escolha do Hugo por templates.

#### Single Template

Um single template é usado para renderizar um único pedaço de conteúdo. Por exemplo, um artigo ou post podem ser um único pedaço de conteúdo e utilizar um single template.

#### List Template

Uma list template renderiza um grupo de conteúdos relacionados. Pode ser um sumário de posts recentes ou todos os artigos de uma categoria. List templates podem conter múltiplos grupos.

O template da homepage é um tipo especial list template. Hugo assumo que a homepage do seu site irá atuar como um portal para o resto do conteúdo do seu site.

#### Partial Template

Um partial template é um template que pode ser incluído dentro de outro template. Partial templates devem ser chamados utilizando o comando "partial". Eles são muito úteis para criar um comportamento comum. Por exemplo, seu site pode ter um banner que é utilizado por todas as páginas. Ao invés de copiar o texto do banner para cada um dos single e list templates, você pode criar um partial com o banner. Desta forma, se decidir mudar o banner, apenas terá que alterar apenas o partial template.

## Criando um novo site

Vamos usar Hugo para criar um novo site. Eu utilizo o Mac, então irei criar no meu diretório home, na pasta Sites. Se você está usando Linux, talvez tenha que criar a pasta primeiro.

O comando "new site" irá criar o esqueleto do site. Ele fornecerá uma estrutura de diretório básica e arquivos de configuração utilizáveis.

$ hugo new site ~/Sites/zafta $ cd ~/Sites/zafta $ ls -l total 8 drwxr-xr-x 7 quoha staff 238 Sep 29 16:49 . drwxr-xr-x 3 quoha staff 102 Sep 29 16:49 .. drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 archetypes -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 82 Sep 29 16:49 config.toml drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 content drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 layouts drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 static $


Olhe o diretório content/ para confirmar que está vazio.

Os outros diretórios (archetypes/, layouts/, and static/) são usados para customização do tema. Este é um tópico para um tutorial diferente, então por favor, ignore-os por enquanto.

### Gerando o HTML do novo site

Executando o comando `hugo` sem opções, irá ler todo o conteúdo disponível e gerar os arquivos HTML. E também copiará todos os arquivos estáticos (tudo aquilo que não é conteúdo). Como temos um site vazio, ele não fará muito, mas será bem rápido.

$ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [index.html _default/list.html _default/single.html] WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 2 ms $


The "`--verbose`" flag gives extra information that will be helpful when we build the template. Every line of the output that starts with "INFO:" or "WARN:" is present because we used that flag. The lines that start with "WARN:" are warning messages. We'll go over them later.

We can verify that the command worked by looking at the directory again.

$ ls -l total 8 drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 archetypes -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 82 Sep 29 16:49 config.toml drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 content drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 layouts drwxr-xr-x 4 quoha staff 136 Sep 29 17:02 public drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 static $


See that new public/ directory? Hugo placed all generated content there. When you're ready to publish your web site, that's the place to start. For now, though, let's just confirm that we have what we'd expect from a site with no content.

$ ls -l public total 16 -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 416 Sep 29 17:02 index.xml -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 262 Sep 29 17:02 sitemap.xml $


Hugo created two XML files, which is standard, but there are no HTML files.



### Test the New Site

Verify that you can run the built-in web server. It will dramatically shorten your development cycle if you do. Start it by running the "server" command. If it is successful, you will see output similar to the following:

$ hugo server –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [index.html _default/list.html _default/single.html] WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 2 ms Serving pages from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public Web Server is available at http://localhost:1313 Press Ctrl+C to stop


Connect to the listed URL (it's on the line that starts with "Web Server"). If everything is working correctly, you should get a page that shows the following:

index.xml sitemap.xml


That's a listing of your public/ directory. Hugo didn't create a home page because our site has no content. When there's no index.html file in a directory, the server lists the files in the directory, which is what you should see in your browser.

Let’s go back and look at those warnings again.

WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [index.html _default/list.html _default/single.html] WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html]


That second warning is easier to explain. We haven’t created a template to be used to generate “page not found errors.” The 404 message is a topic for a separate tutorial.

Now for the first warning. It is for the home page. You can tell because the first layout that it looked for was “index.html.” That’s only used by the home page.

I like that the verbose flag causes Hugo to list the files that it's searching for. For the home page, they are index.html, _default/list.html, and _default/single.html. There are some rules that we'll cover later that explain the names and paths. For now, just remember that Hugo couldn't find a template for the home page and it told you so.

At this point, you've got a working installation and site that we can build upon. All that’s left is to add some content and a theme to display it.

## Create a New Theme

Hugo doesn't ship with a default theme. There are a few available (I counted a dozen when I first installed Hugo) and Hugo comes with a command to create new themes.

We're going to create a new theme called "zafta." Since the goal of this tutorial is to show you how to fill out the files to pull in your content, the theme will not contain any CSS. In other words, ugly but functional.

All themes have opinions on content and layout. For example, Zafta uses "post" over "blog". Strong opinions make for simpler templates but differing opinions make it tougher to use themes. When you build a theme, consider using the terms that other themes do.


### Criando um Esqueleto

Use the hugo "new" command to create the skeleton of a theme. This creates the directory structure and places empty files for you to fill out.

$ hugo new theme zafta

$ ls -l total 8 drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 archetypes -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 82 Sep 29 16:49 config.toml drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 content drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 layouts drwxr-xr-x 4 quoha staff 136 Sep 29 17:02 public drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 16:49 static drwxr-xr-x 3 quoha staff 102 Sep 29 17:31 themes

$ find themes -type f | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 1081 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/LICENSE.md -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/archetypes/default.md -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ list.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ single.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/partials/ footer.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/partials/ header.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 93 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/theme.toml $


The skeleton includes templates (the files ending in .html), license file, a description of your theme (the theme.toml file), and an empty archetype.

Please take a minute to fill out the theme.toml and LICENSE.md files. They're optional, but if you're going to be distributing your theme, it tells the world who to praise (or blame). It's also nice to declare the license so that people will know how they can use the theme.

$ vi themes/zafta/theme.toml author = “michael d henderson” description = “a minimal working template” license = “MIT” name = “zafta” source_repo = “” tags = [“tags”, “categories”] :wq

also edit themes/zafta/LICENSE.md and change

the bit that says “YOUR_NAME_HERE”


Note that the the skeleton's template files are empty. Don't worry, we'll be changing that shortly.

$ find themes/zafta -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ list.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ single.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/ index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/partials/ footer.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/partials/ header.html $




### Update the Configuration File to Use the Theme

Now that we've got a theme to work with, it's a good idea to add the theme name to the configuration file. This is optional, because you can always add "-t zafta" on all your commands. I like to put it the configuration file because I like shorter command lines. If you don't put it in the configuration file or specify it on the command line, you won't use the template that you're expecting to.

Edit the file to add the theme, add a title for the site, and specify that all of our content will use the TOML format.

$ vi config.toml theme = “zafta” baseurl = “” languageCode = “en-us” title = “zafta - totally refreshing” MetaDataFormat = “toml” :wq

$


### Generate the Site

Now that we have an empty theme, let's generate the site again.

$ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 2 ms $


Did you notice that the output is different? The warning message for the home page has disappeared and we have an additional information line saying that Hugo is syncing from the theme's directory.

Let's check the public/ directory to see what Hugo's created.

$ ls -l public total 16 drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 17:56 css -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:56 index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 407 Sep 29 17:56 index.xml drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 17:56 js -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 243 Sep 29 17:56 sitemap.xml $


Notice four things:

1. Hugo created a home page. This is the file public/index.html.
2. Hugo created a css/ directory.
3. Hugo created a js/ directory.
4. Hugo claimed that it created 0 pages. It created a file and copied over static files, but didn't create any pages. That's because it considers a "page" to be a file created directly from a content file. It doesn't count things like the index.html files that it creates automatically.

#### The Home Page

Hugo supports many different types of templates. The home page is special because it gets its own type of template and its own template file. The file, layouts/index.html, is used to generate the HTML for the home page. The Hugo documentation says that this is the only required template, but that depends. Hugo's warning message shows that it looks for three different templates:

WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [index.html _default/list.html _default/single.html]


If it can't find any of these, it completely skips creating the home page. We noticed that when we built the site without having a theme installed.

When Hugo created our theme, it created an empty home page template. Now, when we build the site, Hugo finds the template and uses it to generate the HTML for the home page. Since the template file is empty, the HTML file is empty, too. If the template had any rules in it, then Hugo would have used them to generate the home page.

$ find . -name index.html | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 20:21 ./public/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 ./themes/zafta/layouts/index.html $


#### The Magic of Static

Hugo does two things when generating the site. It uses templates to transform content into HTML and it copies static files into the site. Unlike content, static files are not transformed. They are copied exactly as they are.

Hugo assumes that your site will use both CSS and JavaScript, so it creates directories in your theme to hold them. Remember opinions? Well, Hugo's opinion is that you'll store your CSS in a directory named css/ and your JavaScript in a directory named js/. If you don't like that, you can change the directory names in your theme directory or even delete them completely. Hugo's nice enough to offer its opinion, then behave nicely if you disagree.

$ find themes/zafta -type d | xargs ls -ld drwxr-xr-x 7 quoha staff 238 Sep 29 17:38 themes/zafta drwxr-xr-x 3 quoha staff 102 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/archetypes drwxr-xr-x 5 quoha staff 170 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts drwxr-xr-x 4 quoha staff 136 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default drwxr-xr-x 4 quoha staff 136 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/partials drwxr-xr-x 4 quoha staff 136 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/static drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/static/css drwxr-xr-x 2 quoha staff 68 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/static/js $


## The Theme Development Cycle

When you're working on a theme, you will make changes in the theme's directory, rebuild the site, and check your changes in the browser. Hugo makes this very easy:

1. Purge the public/ directory.
2. Run the built in web server in watch mode.
3. Open your site in a browser.
4. Update the theme.
5. Glance at your browser window to see changes.
6. Return to step 4.

I’ll throw in one more opinion: never work on a theme on a live site. Always work on a copy of your site. Make changes to your theme, test them, then copy them up to your site. For added safety, use a tool like Git to keep a revision history of your content and your theme. Believe me when I say that it is too easy to lose both your mind and your changes.

Check the main Hugo site for information on using Git with Hugo.

### Purge the public/ Directory

When generating the site, Hugo will create new files and update existing ones in the ```public/``` directory. It will not delete files that are no longer used. For example, files that were created in the wrong directory or with the wrong title will remain. If you leave them, you might get confused by them later. I recommend cleaning out your site prior to generating it.

Note: If you're building on an SSD, you should ignore this. Churning on a SSD can be costly.

### Hugo's Watch Option

Hugo's "`--watch`" option will monitor the content/ and your theme directories for changes and rebuild the site automatically.

### Live Reload

Hugo's built in web server supports live reload. As pages are saved on the server, the browser is told to refresh the page. Usually, this happens faster than you can say, "Wow, that's totally amazing."

### Development Commands

Use the following commands as the basis for your workflow.

purge old files. hugo will recreate the public directory.

## $ rm -rf public ##

run hugo in watch mode

## $ hugo server –watch –verbose


Here's sample output showing Hugo detecting a change to the template for the home page. Once generated, the web browser automatically reloaded the page. I've said this before, it's amazing.


$ rm -rf public $ hugo server –watch –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 2 ms Watching for changes in /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/content Serving pages from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public Web Server is available at http://localhost:1313 Press Ctrl+C to stop INFO: 2014/09/29 File System Event: [“/Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/ layouts/index.html”: MODIFY|ATTRIB] Change detected, rebuilding site

WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 1 ms


## Update the Home Page Template

The home page is one of a few special pages that Hugo creates automatically. As mentioned earlier, it looks for one of three files in the theme's layout/ directory:

1. index.html
2. _default/list.html
3. _default/single.html

We could update one of the default templates, but a good design decision is to update the most specific template available. That's not a hard and fast rule (in fact, we'll break it a few times in this tutorial), but it is a good generalization.

### Make a Static Home Page

Right now, that page is empty because we don't have any content and we don't have any logic in the template. Let's change that by adding some text to the template.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

hugo says hello!

:wq

$


Build the web site and then verify the results.

$ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 0 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 2 ms

$ find public -type f -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 78 Sep 29 21:26 public/index.html

$ cat public/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

hugo says hello!


#### Live Reload

Note: If you're running the server with the `--watch` option, you'll see different content in the file:

$ cat public/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

hugo says hello!


When you use `--watch`, the Live Reload script is added by Hugo. Look for live reload in the documentation to see what it does and how to disable it.

### Build a "Dynamic" Home Page

"Dynamic home page?" Hugo's a static web site generator, so this seems an odd thing to say. I mean let's have the home page automatically reflect the content in the site every time Hugo builds it. We'll use iteration in the template to do that.

#### Create New Posts

Now that we have the home page generating static content, let's add some content to the site. We'll display these posts as a list on the home page and on their own page, too.

Hugo has a command to generate a skeleton post, just like it does for sites and themes.

$ hugo –verbose new post/first.md INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 attempting to create post/first.md of post INFO: 2014/09/29 curpath: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/archetypes/ default.md ERROR: 2014/09/29 Unable to Cast to map[string]interface{}

$


That wasn't very nice, was it?

The "new" command uses an archetype to create the post file. Hugo created an empty default archetype file, but that causes an error when there's a theme. For me, the workaround was to create an archetypes file specifically for the post type.

$ vi themes/zafta/archetypes/post.md +++ Description = “” Tags = [] Categories = [] +++ :wq

$ find themes/zafta/archetypes -type f | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 21:53 themes/zafta/archetypes/default.md -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 51 Sep 29 21:54 themes/zafta/archetypes/post.md

$ hugo –verbose new post/first.md INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 attempting to create post/first.md of post INFO: 2014/09/29 curpath: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/archetypes/ post.md INFO: 2014/09/29 creating /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/content/post/first.md /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/content/post/first.md created

$ hugo –verbose new post/second.md INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 attempting to create post/second.md of post INFO: 2014/09/29 curpath: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/archetypes/ post.md INFO: 2014/09/29 creating /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/content/post/second.md /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/content/post/second.md created

$ ls -l content/post total 16 -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 104 Sep 29 21:54 first.md -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 105 Sep 29 21:57 second.md

$ cat content/post/first.md +++ Categories = [] Description = “” Tags = [] date = “2014-09-29T21:54:53-05:00” title = “first”

+++ my first post

$ cat content/post/second.md +++ Categories = [] Description = “” Tags = [] date = “2014-09-29T21:57:09-05:00” title = “second”

+++ my second post

$


Build the web site and then verify the results.

$ rm -rf public $ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 found taxonomies: map[string]string{“category”:“categories”, “tag”:“tags”} WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 2 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 4 ms $


The output says that it created 2 pages. Those are our new posts:

$ find public -type f -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 78 Sep 29 22:13 public/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:13 public/post/first/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:13 public/post/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:13 public/post/second/index.html $


The new files are empty because because the templates used to generate the content are empty. The homepage doesn't show the new content, either. We have to update the templates to add the posts.

### List and Single Templates

In Hugo, we have three major kinds of templates. There's the home page template that we updated previously. It is used only by the home page. We also have "single" templates which are used to generate output for a single content file. We also have "list" templates that are used to group multiple pieces of content before generating output.

Generally speaking, list templates are named "list.html" and single templates are named "single.html."

There are three other types of templates: partials, content views, and terms. We will not go into much detail on these.

### Add Content to the Homepage

The home page will contain a list of posts. Let's update its template to add the posts that we just created. The logic in the template will run every time we build the site.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/index.html <!DOCTYPE html> {{ range first 10 .Data.Pages }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ end }} :wq

$


Hugo uses the Go template engine. That engine scans the template files for commands which are enclosed between "{{" and "}}". In our template, the commands are:

1. range
2. .Title
3. end

The "range" command is an iterator. We're going to use it to go through the first ten pages. Every HTML file that Hugo creates is treated as a page, so looping through the list of pages will look at every file that will be created.

The ".Title" command prints the value of the "title" variable. Hugo pulls it from the front matter in the Markdown file.

The "end" command signals the end of the range iterator. The engine loops back to the top of the iteration when it finds "end." Everything between the "range" and "end" is evaluated every time the engine goes through the iteration. In this file, that would cause the title from the first ten pages to be output as heading level one.

It's helpful to remember that some variables, like .Data, are created before any output files. Hugo loads every content file into the variable and then gives the template a chance to process before creating the HTML files.

Build the web site and then verify the results.

$ rm -rf public $ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 found taxonomies: map[string]string{“tag”:“tags”, “category”:“categories”} WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 2 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 4 ms $ find public -type f -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 94 Sep 29 22:23 public/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:23 public/post/first/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:23 public/post/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:23 public/post/second/index.html $ cat public/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

<h1>second</h1>

<h1>first</h1>

$


Congratulations, the home page shows the title of the two posts. The posts themselves are still empty, but let's take a moment to appreciate what we've done. Your template now generates output dynamically. Believe it or not, by inserting the range command inside of those curly braces, you've learned everything you need to know to build a theme. All that's really left is understanding which template will be used to generate each content file and becoming familiar with the commands for the template engine.

And, if that were entirely true, this tutorial would be much shorter. There are a few things to know that will make creating a new template much easier. Don't worry, though, that's all to come.

### Add Content to the Posts

We're working with posts, which are in the content/post/ directory. That means that their section is "post" (and if we don't do something weird, their type is also "post").

Hugo uses the section and type to find the template file for every piece of content. Hugo will first look for a template file that matches the section or type name. If it can't find one, then it will look in the _default/ directory. There are some twists that we'll cover when we get to categories and tags, but for now we can assume that Hugo will try post/single.html, then _default/single.html.

Now that we know the search rule, let's see what we actually have available:

$ find themes/zafta -name single.html | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 132 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ single.html


We could create a new template, post/single.html, or change the default. Since we don't know of any other content types, let's start with updating the default.

Remember, any content that we haven't created a template for will end up using this template. That can be good or bad. Bad because I know that we're going to be adding different types of content and we're going to end up undoing some of the changes we've made. It's good because we'll be able to see immediate results. It's also good to start here because we can start to build the basic layout for the site. As we add more content types, we'll refactor this file and move logic around. Hugo makes that fairly painless, so we'll accept the cost and proceed.

Please see the Hugo documentation on template rendering for all the details on determining which template to use. And, as the docs mention, if you're building a single page application (SPA) web site, you can delete all of the other templates and work with just the default single page. That's a refreshing amount of joy right there.

#### Update the Template File

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/_default/single.html <!DOCTYPE html> {{ .Title }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ .Content }} :wq

$


Build the web site and verify the results.

$ rm -rf public $ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 found taxonomies: map[string]string{“tag”:“tags”, “category”:“categories”} WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 2 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 4 ms

$ find public -type f -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 94 Sep 29 22:40 public/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 125 Sep 29 22:40 public/post/first/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:40 public/post/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 128 Sep 29 22:40 public/post/second/index.html

$ cat public/post/first/index.html <!DOCTYPE html> first

first

my first post

$ cat public/post/second/index.html <!DOCTYPE html> second

second

my second post

$


Notice that the posts now have content. You can go to localhost:1313/post/first to verify.

### Linking to Content

The posts are on the home page. Let's add a link from there to the post. Since this is the home page, we'll update its template.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/index.html <!DOCTYPE html> {{ range first 10 .Data.Pages }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ end }}


Build the web site and verify the results.

$ rm -rf public $ hugo –verbose INFO: 2014/09/29 Using config file: /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/config.toml INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/themes/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 syncing from /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/static/ to /Users/quoha/Sites/zafta/public/ INFO: 2014/09/29 found taxonomies: map[string]string{“tag”:“tags”, “category”:“categories”} WARN: 2014/09/29 Unable to locate layout: [404.html theme/404.html] 0 draft content 0 future content 2 pages created 0 tags created 0 categories created in 4 ms

$ find public -type f -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 149 Sep 29 22:44 public/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 125 Sep 29 22:44 public/post/first/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 22:44 public/post/index.html -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 128 Sep 29 22:44 public/post/second/index.html

$ cat public/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

<h1><a href="/post/second/">second</a></h1>

<h1><a href="/post/first/">first</a></h1>

$


### Create a Post Listing

We have the posts displaying on the home page and on their own page. We also have a file public/post/index.html that is empty. Let's make it show a list of all posts (not just the first ten).

We need to decide which template to update. This will be a listing, so it should be a list template. Let's take a quick look and see which list templates are available.

$ find themes/zafta -name list.html | xargs ls -l -rw-r–r– 1 quoha staff 0 Sep 29 17:31 themes/zafta/layouts/_default/ list.html


As with the single post, we have to decide to update _default/list.html or create post/list.html. We still don't have multiple content types, so let's stay consistent and update the default list template.

## Creating Top Level Pages

Let's add an "about" page and display it at the top level (as opposed to a sub-level like we did with posts).

The default in Hugo is to use the directory structure of the content/ directory to guide the location of the generated html in the public/ directory. Let's verify that by creating an "about" page at the top level:

$ vi content/about.md +++ title = “about” description = “about this site” date = “2014-09-27” slug = “about time” +++

about us

i’m speechless :wq


Generate the web site and verify the results.

$ find public -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 334 Sep 27 15:08 public/about-time/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 527 Sep 27 15:08 public/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 358 Sep 27 15:08 public/post/first-post/ index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 0 Sep 27 15:08 public/post/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 342 Sep 27 15:08 public/post/second-post/ index.html


Notice that the page wasn't created at the top level. It was created in a sub-directory named 'about-time/'. That name came from our slug. Hugo will use the slug to name the generated content. It's a reasonable default, by the way, but we can learn a few things by fighting it for this file.

One other thing. Take a look at the home page.

$ cat public/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

creating a new theme

about

second

first


Notice that the "about" link is listed with the posts? That's not desirable, so let's change that first.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/index.html <!DOCTYPE html>

posts

{{ range first 10 .Data.Pages }} {{ if eq .Type “post”}}

{{ .Title }}

{{ end }} {{ end }}

pages

{{ range .Data.Pages }} {{ if eq .Type “page” }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ end }} {{ end }} :wq


Generate the web site and verify the results. The home page has two sections, posts and pages, and each section has the right set of headings and links in it.

But, that about page still renders to about-time/index.html.

$ find public -name ‘*.html’ | xargs ls -l -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 334 Sep 27 15:33 public/about-time/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 645 Sep 27 15:33 public/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 358 Sep 27 15:33 public/post/first-post/ index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 0 Sep 27 15:33 public/post/index.html -rw-rw-r– 1 mdhender staff 342 Sep 27 15:33 public/post/second-post/ index.html


Knowing that hugo is using the slug to generate the file name, the simplest solution is to change the slug. Let's do it the hard way and change the permalink in the configuration file.

$ vi config.toml [permalinks] page = “/:title/” about = “/:filename/”


Generate the web site and verify that this didn't work. Hugo lets "slug" or "URL" override the permalinks setting in the configuration file. Go ahead and comment out the slug in content/about.md, then generate the web site to get it to be created in the right place.

## Sharing Templates

If you've been following along, you probably noticed that posts have titles in the browser and the home page doesn't. That's because we didn't put the title in the home page's template (layouts/index.html). That's an easy thing to do, but let's look at a different option.

We can put the common bits into a shared template that's stored in the themes/zafta/layouts/partials/ directory.

### Create the Header and Footer Partials

In Hugo, a partial is a sugar-coated template. Normally a template reference has a path specified. Partials are different. Hugo searches for them along a TODO defined search path. This makes it easier for end-users to override the theme's presentation.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/partials/header.html <!DOCTYPE html> {{ .Title }} :wq

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/partials/footer.html :wq


### Update the Home Page Template to Use the Partials

The most noticeable difference between a template call and a partials call is the lack of path:

{{ template “theme/partials/header.html” . }}

versus

{{ partial “header.html” . }}

Both pass in the context.

Let's change the home page template to use these new partials.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/index.html {{ partial “header.html” . }}

posts

{{ range first 10 .Data.Pages }} {{ if eq .Type “post”}}

{{ .Title }}

{{ end }} {{ end }}

pages

{{ range .Data.Pages }} {{ if or (eq .Type “page”) (eq .Type “about”) }}

{{ .Type }} - {{ .Title }} - {{ .RelPermalink }}

{{ end }} {{ end }}

{{ partial “footer.html” . }} :wq


Generate the web site and verify the results. The title on the home page is now "your title here", which comes from the "title" variable in the config.toml file.

### Update the Default Single Template to Use the Partials

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/_default/single.html {{ partial “header.html” . }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ .Content }}

{{ partial “footer.html” . }} :wq


Generate the web site and verify the results. The title on the posts and the about page should both reflect the value in the markdown file.

## Add “Date Published” to Posts

It's common to have posts display the date that they were written or published, so let's add that. The front matter of our posts has a variable named "date." It's usually the date the content was created, but let's pretend that's the value we want to display.

### Add “Date Published” to the Template

We'll start by updating the template used to render the posts. The template code will look like:

{{ .Date.Format “Mon, Jan 2, 2006” }}


Posts use the default single template, so we'll change that file.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/_default/single.html {{ partial “header.html” . }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ .Date.Format “Mon, Jan 2, 2006” }}

{{ .Content }}

{{ partial “footer.html” . }} :wq


Generate the web site and verify the results. The posts now have the date displayed in them. There's a problem, though. The "about" page also has the date displayed.

As usual, there are a couple of ways to make the date display only on posts. We could do an "if" statement like we did on the home page. Another way would be to create a separate template for posts.

The "if" solution works for sites that have just a couple of content types. It aligns with the principle of "code for today," too.

Let's assume, though, that we've made our site so complex that we feel we have to create a new template type. In Hugo-speak, we're going to create a section template.

Let's restore the default single template before we forget.

$ mkdir themes/zafta/layouts/post $ vi themes/zafta/layouts/_default/single.html {{ partial “header.html” . }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ .Content }}

{{ partial “footer.html” . }} :wq


Now we'll update the post's version of the single template. If you remember Hugo's rules, the template engine will use this version over the default.

$ vi themes/zafta/layouts/post/single.html {{ partial “header.html” . }}

{{ .Title }}

{{ .Date.Format “Mon, Jan 2, 2006” }}

{{ .Content }}

{{ partial “footer.html” . }} :wq

```

Note that we removed the date logic from the default template and put it in the post template. Generate the web site and verify the results. Posts have dates and the about page doesn’t.

Don’t Repeat Yourself ( Não repita você mesmo)

DRY é um bom design e o Hugo faz um grande trabalho para apoiá-lo. Parte da arte de um bom template é saber quando adicionar um novo template e quanto atualizar um já existente. Enquanto você estiver descobrindo isto, aceite que algumas vezes precisará refatorá-lo. Hugo permite isto de maneira fácil e rápida, então não tem problema atrasos na divisão do seu template.

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